Fossilized dinosaur bones contain fragments of rock from the impact. According to current science, which of the following statements must be true? Jupiter is one of the brightest objects visible to the naked eye in the night sky and has been known to ancient civilizations since before recorded history. Hot Jupiters are gas giant planets with orbital period less than 10 days. gravitational tugs from Jupiter prevented material from collecting together to form a planet, Jupiter nudges the asteroids through the influence of, if we know the size of an asteroid, we can determine its density by, determining its mass from its gravitational pull on a spacecraft, satellite ,or planet. In our Solar System, there are two objects larger than this teeny star. Pluto grows a coma and a long tail when it is at the point in its orbit closest to the Sun. the backward orbit of Triton (a moon of Neptune). by comparing its brightness in visible light to its brightness in infrared light. How do astronomers think Saturn generates its internal heat? yes, by measuring both the star's orbital period and its change in velocity over the orbit, The reason that most extrasolar planets are found close to their parent stars is, the amount and frequency of the star's motion are both higher, Based on what we know about our solar system, the discovery of hot Jupiter's came as a surprise to scientists because these planets are, Only supports sudden cause of demise of the dinosaurs, Consistent with gradual cause of demise of the dinosaurs, The change in fossils at the KT sediment layer suggests that in addition to the dinos ______also went extinct, abut 3/4s of all species living at the time. it would have only one tail instead of two, When we see a meteor shower, it means that, Pluto orbits the Sun exactly two times for every three Neptune orbits. Heat and pressure is so great near the core, that liquid hydrogen is compressed into a "metallic" state with properties in many ways similar to those of a liquid metal. Why do Jovian planets bulge around the equator, that is, have a "squashed" appearance? It is the 25th-largest body in the Solar System within the orbit of Neptune. But it could have been so much more, if not for a few missing features. Which of the following best explains why many jovian moons gave been more geologically active than the Moon or Mercury? The reason why there isn’t one in our Solar System is down to its formation. And another. While that debate goes on, a subtler question arises about how influential Jupiter was in the early Solar System. As mentioned above, Jupiter is 2.5 times as massive as all the other planets in the solar system combined. Are there certain planets that each method cannot detect, even if the planets are very large? Galileo: geology of moon europa, magnetic fields on Ganymede, water vapor, lightning, and auroras on Jupiter. -because they are relatively small in size. Which of the following does not yield information on Jovian planet interiors? How do orbital resonances with Jupiter affect the asteroid belt? The asteroids belt lies between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. Atmospheric loss. In our solar system, there is two Objects larger than this little star. Which of the following best describes the internal layering of Jupiter, from the center outward? Why do some scientists say that the Moon may have been important for the evolution of human life? Jupiter is so gassy, it seems more like a star. The short answer is simple: Jupiter doesn't have enough mass to fuse hydrogen into helium. Only Mercury would be in the Sun's habitable zone. Neither the asteroid belt nor Oort cloud exist. Astronomers have detected small lakes of liquid water on Europa's surface. Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.It is a gas giant with a mass one-thousandth that of the Sun, but two-and-a-half times that of all the other planets in the Solar System combined. Different layers represent clouds made of gases that condense at different temperatures, alternating bands of rising and falling air at different latitudes. Scientists think it is very unlikely that complex and large forms of life could evolve on planets that orbit stars that are much more massive than the Sun. NASA's Galileo mission was firs… A massive planet exerts a tidal force on a moon that causes the moon to align itself such that its tidal bulges always point toward and away from the planet. Surface regions that suggest glacial movement of frozen ices of nitrogen and methane. To try to prevent an impact that might destroy a town or city. tidal heating can lead to subsurface zones of liquid water, T/F: Jupiter's great red spot is a low-pressure storm like a hurricane on Earth. Suppose there were no solar wind. Planets come in a wider range of types than the planets in our solar system. Triton orbits Neptune in a direction opposite that of Neptune's rotation, -double ridged surface features strongly suggest a subsurface ocean below, -most distant from Jupiter of these four moons. What other moon besides Titan is bigger than Mercury? ____ are intact leftovers of the solar nebula. Which of the following properties can inferred from the star's orbital period? Their rapid rotation flings the mass near the equator outward. Which of the following is not due to tidal forces? Hot Jupiters are giant planets which are very similar to Jupiter, but orbit very much closer in than Mercury is to our sun, so these planets have orbital period of two or three days and are extremely hot - absolutely getting roasted. Obviously, one of them is the sun. The close proximity to their stars and high surface-atmosphere temperatures resulted in the moniker "hot Jupiters". Where did comets that are now in the Oort cloud originally form? Uranus and Neptune have methane clouds but Jupiter and Saturn do not. Why do Uranus and Neptune have blue methane clouds but Jupiter and Saturn do not? Planet properties of Jupiter and Saturn only, -interior mostly liquid or metallic hydrogen, Planet properties of Uranus and Neptune only, Planet properties of all four Jovian planets. Nine spacecraft have studied Jupiter up close. its density would increase, but its diameter would barely change. When do comets generally begin to form a tail? the three layers represent clouds made of gases that condense at different temperatures. the amount and frequency of the star's motion are both higher. Which of the following most likely explains why Jupiter's interior releases so much heat? They are much faster than hurricane winds on Earth, T/F: Hydrogen exists as a gas, liquid, and solid within Jupiter. Scientists also use the Earth-orbiting Hubble Space Telescopeand ground-based telescopes to regularly check in on Jupiter. what is responsible for jupiters huge magnetic field? In our solar system we have a Jupiter, it will take time for our Jupiter to move towards sun. So Jupiter could have theoretically moved even closer to the sun to become a true hot jupiter but the extremely complex, chaotic, and dynamic conditions of the early solar system set in motion a string of interactions that prevented that from happening and instead formed the solar system we see today. Which of the following is not a piece of evidence supporting the idea that Pluto is a large comet of the Kuiper belt? For one thing, it's enormous, containing 70% of our solar system's planetary material, yet it is not like the rocky world beneath our feet. They went from goofy oddballs to … normalcy. Why does the plasma tail of a comet always point away from the Sun? Voyager: faint dark ring. Particles in the solar nebula were more spread out at greater distances, so that accretion took longer and there was less time to pull in gas before the solar wind cleared the nebula. This keeps them from lumping together and forming a planet In fact, it tends to make the asteroids break apart when they collide, Halley's comet is name after the English scientist Edmund Halley because he, calculated its orbit predicted that it would return in 1758. First off, you should know that Jupiter does not have a hard, rocky surface like the one we have here on Earth. The other is Jupiter, like a giant scoop of ice cream, coming in with a mean radius of 69,911 kilometres. “So, the atmospheres of hot jupiters are very exotic, by solar system standards. How do typically wind speeds in Jupiter's atmosphere compare to typical wind speeds on Earth? Which of following gases in not a significant ingredient of the Jovian planet atmospheres? What is the Cassini division of Saturn's rings? The short period means that hot Jupiters are very close to their host stars, usually less than 0.1 AU, one tenth of the distance between the Earth and the Sun. NASA's Juno spacecraft is currently studying the gas giant planet from orbit. cracks caused by strong tidal forces. gets its energy from differential wind speed in the different latitude bands (which get their energy from rotational energy and sun), complex chemical processes in the turbulent upper atmosphere. The light stripes are regions of high clouds, and the dark stripes are regions where we can see down to deeper darker clouds. It kicked out many comets from the inner solar system through gravitational encounters, thus limiting the number objects that could potentially hit the inner planets. Not all auroras are created equal. What atmospheric constituent is responsible for the blue color of Uranus and Neptune? it is a little less than half the diameter of our Moon, If we could put all the asteroids together, their total mass would be, much less than the mass of any terrestrial planet, why didn't a planet form where the asteroid belt is now located. They have low albedos Sort the Jovian planets by whether or not they have … We have detected water ice on Mars, and Mars still has some volcanic heat, Overall Jupiter's composition is most like that of. Also, io orbits so close to jupiter, that the huge gravitational field produces strong tidal forces. Then half a dozen more. If so, why can't they be detected? What characteristic distinguishes a meteorite from a terrestrial rock? cracked, icy surface. In that region of the solar system, Jupiter's resonances pump up the eccentricities of objects, making them to collide at high speed. Which is not a piece of evidence supporting the idea that Europa may have been a subsurface ocean? It probably formed as a result of a giant impact. The two Jovian planets that contain the highest portions of hydrogen compounds are. Just as astronomers have sought to explain how a gas giant becomes a Hot Jupiter, others been trying to learn why our Jupiter didn’t become one … The other is Jupiter, which, like a huge scoop of ice cream, comes in a medium radius 69,911 km. Jupiter and the other jovian planets are sometimes called "gas giants". The short answer is simple: Jupiter doesn’t have enough mass to fuse hydrogen into helium. There have been a few other fairly sudden mass extinctions, but none are as clearly tied to impacts as the dinosaur extinction. All gas giants form far from their star but then some migrate inwards. T/F: Jupiter likely formed first since it is the largest Jovian planet and closest to the Sun, are continually supplied with new particles by impacts with small moons. atmosphere becomes denser closer to the interior due to pressure from overlying layers. Thus, the phrase “stepping on the surface of Jupiter” would not be literally possible, as Jupiter is a gas giant, meaning that it has no hard, solid surface to set one’s feet on.. Overall, what do current data suggest about planetary types in other planetary systems? by contracting, changing gravitational potential energy into thermal energy, High-mass main-sepence stars have a more distant and wider ______ than low-mass stars, Sky surveys looking for radio signals generated by technology are a part of the, What is designed as a way of estimating the number of intelligent civilizations in the Milky Way, The notion that living organisms with advantages that give them greater reproductive success (in some local environment) will survive while others perish is an example of what Darwin called, One of the key premises for the _______ is that living organisms are able to produce far more offspring than their environment can support, The different time periods of the _______ are defined by changes in fossils found from those time periods, Incoming UV light from the Sun can cause a _______ in a living organism's DNA that can affect its ability to survive and reproduce, The extra mass of Jupiter compresses its interior to a greater extent than that of Saturn, As the mass of the central star increases, the distance to the habitable zone _____ and the size (width of the habitable zone _______. If the atmosphere of a hot Jupiter is stripped away via hydrodynamic escape, its core may become a chthonian planet. A lot of these hot Jupiters are much larger than our own Jupiter, which is often attributed to radiation from the star heating and expanding their gas layers. Why Does Jupiter Have the Great Red Spot? Which of Saturn's moons did spacecraft show images of ice spraying into space? Which of the following best explains why Jupiter's density is higher than Saturn's? your meteorite is a fragment from the ore of a large asteroid that shattered in a collision. Jupiter is more massive than Saturn captured more gas from the solar nebula than Uranus and Neptune. For a while, it started to look like our own solar system was the weird one. Hot Jupiters are heated gas giant planets that are very close to their stars, just a few million miles distant and orbiting their stellar hosts in just a few days. “So, the atmospheres of hot jupiters are very exotic, by solar system standards. Lakes of liquid water in the warmer equaltorial regions. Read on to learn how Jupiter came achingly close to being its own star. Which of the following best summarizes current understanding of other extinctions in Earth's past history? How would the appearance of a comet in out inner solar system be different? Saturn's many moons affect its rings through..? An extraterrestrial astronomer surveying our solar system with the Doppler technique could discover the existence of Jupiter with just a few days of observation False; it would take a lot more than just a few days of observation to discover They're probably pretty rare; the current list contains a lot of them, because for a few years "hot Jupiter" type systems were the only ones that could be detected. They typically have temperatures of a thousand to several thousand … by comparing its infrared thermal emission to its visible-light reflection, along Jupiter's orbit, 60° ahead of and behind Jupiter. If our solar system had a hot Jupiter, we wouldn't be here to see it. But it could have been so much more, if not for a few missing features. considering it doesn't get much sunlight from the sun cause it's so far away. The term “hot” in this context means that the planet is expected to be much hotter than our own Jupiter by virtue of the fact that the planet is much closer to the host star than our Jupiter … Jupiter’s auroral glow is much stronger than Earth’s, so researchers assumed it was caused by the same process that generates our planet’s brightest auroras. Which moon have scientists detected lakes of liquid methane and ethane on the surface? Which of the following can contribute to explaining why Jovian moons are sometimes much more geological active than terrestrial worlds of similar (or smaller) size? Based on what we know about our solar system, the discovery of hot Jupiter's came as a surprise to scientists because these planets are. They contain rocks and metals mixed together, as well as carbon compounds in some cases. A typically meteor is created by a particle about the size of a, A spacecraft traveling through the asteroid belt has a high risk of being destroyed through a collision. countless icy particles, ranging in size from dust grains to large boulders, Any particle in the ring with an orbital tilt would collide with other particles, flattening its orbit. by raining dense helium droplets from higher to lower altitudes, resembling the process of differentiation. Which of the following would most likely be true? how does cratering vary among the Galilean moons? Uranus and Neptune contain relatively more rock and hydrogen compounds than Jupiter and Saturn. Which moon is the most volcanically active world in the solar system? Jupiter's magnetosphere has a long tail extending away from the Sun at least as far as Saturn's orbit. Methane does not condense into ice in the warmer atmospheric temperatures of Jupiter and Saturn. Denser materials are effected by gravity more so they will be pulled closer to the center of the system, non synchronous orbit around Jupiter (due to it not being the only satellite). Core of rock, metal, and hydrogen compounds; thick layer of metallic hydrogen; layer of liquid hydrogen; layer of gaseous hydrogen; cloud layer. So why is Jupiter a planet and not a star? Which of Jupiter's moons has the strongest evidence of an ocean? They went from goofy oddballs to … normalcy. Why do astronomers believe that Triton is a captured moon? The spacecraft, which arrived at Jupiter in July 2016, is the first to study the planet's mysterious, cloud-shrouded interior. comets with extremely elliptical orbits, like comets Hyakutake and Hale-Bopp, Distinguishing characteristics of meteors, -visible in the sky as a bright streak of light for only a few seconds, Distinguishing characteristics of Asteroids, -compositions similar to that of the terrestrial planets, T/F: Falling stars and shooting stars are simply other names for meteors, about a trillion comets are thought to be located far, far beyond Pluto in the, The bright spherical part of a comet observed when it is lose to the sun is the, A comet's ______ stretches directly away from the sun, a comet's _____ is the frozen portion of a comet, Particles ejected from a comet can cause a _____on Earth, The _____extends from about beyond the orbit of Neptune to about twice the distance of Neptune from the Sun. Suppose you could float in space just a few meters above Saturn's rings. Hot Jupiters migrate in from the outer regions of the solar system, taking out any small planets in their way. -meteorites contain rare elements, such as iridium, that terrestrial rocks do not. Hot Jupiters are gas giant planets, much like Saturn or Jupiter, that orbit extraordinarily close to their stars, at about one-tenth of the distance from Mercury to the sun. size and shape of Jupiter's magnetosphere is determined by the interaction between the planet's magnetic field and the solar wind. Jupiter is the largest planet in our solar system at nearly 11 times the size of Earth and 317 times its mass. What is the typical size of comets that enter the inner solar system? That's the reason we still don't have a hot jupiter Searching for Earth-like planets in alien solar systems with "hot Jupiter"-type worlds may be fruitless, a new study suggests. What would happen to Jupiter if we could somehow double its mass? Which planet may have helium rain in its interior, and what does this rain do? As a result, they are made up of either metals or rocky material rather than a mix of the two, The large gaps in the asteroid belt (often called Kirkwood gaps) are caused by, In order to have a comet names after you, you have to, be one of the first three discoverers who report it to the IAU. What part of a comet points most directly away from the Sun? Both techniques are most sensitive to large planets close to their stars. Planets that do not have necessary orbital alignment cannot be detected, Choose the correct description of advantages gained if a planet can be detected by both methods, If a planet can be detected by both methods, then we can find its density - an indication of its composition, -used for most of the first 200 extrasolar planet detections, -Planet detection strategy of NASA's Kepler Mission, measures precise changes in a star's position in the sky, in fractions of arcseconds. How many more times is the atmospheric pressure in Jupiter's core greater than the atmospheric pressure at Earth's surface? They typically have temperatures of a thousand to several thousand … Which of the following would be true in that case? Why does Jupiter have several distinct cloud layers? the solar wind electromagnetically "blows" the ions directly away from the Sun, Things known prior to New Horizons mission, -Pluto has a comet like composition of ice and rock, Things learned from the New Horizons mission, Possible but not proven from New Horizons mission, -Pluto has a subsurface ocean of liquid water, T/F: The total mass of the Kuiper belt is greater than that of the asteroid belt, In the asteroid impact theory of the extinction of the dinosaurs some 65 million years ago, the dinos died off largely because, dust injected into the stratosphere from the impact absorbed visible light from the Sun, causing global temperatures to plummet, what are strengths and limitations of the Doppler method, -advantage of being able to detect planets in a wide range of orbits, Strengths and limitations of the transit method. How can we determine an asteroid's reflectivity? Why is Io more volcanically active than our moon? rotates very rapidly; possible to infer large rocky core. According to our theory of solar system formation, why did Uranus and Neptune end up to be much less massive than Jupiter and Saturn? _____have undergone differentiations in larger asteroids. rotation rate is not constant from one location to another. In what sense is this term misleading? Except for the top of the Great Red Spot, the white clouds are the highest, with cloud-top temperatures of about 120 kelvins (K; −240 °F, or −150 °C). Suppose that our Sun was cool enough to include Mercury in its habitable zone. however, we see many layers of jupiter. Which jovian planet should have the most extreme seasonal changes? Hot Jupiters migrate in from the outer regions of the solar system, taking out any small planets in their way. Why is Saturn almost big as Jupiter, despite its smaller mass? First off, you should know that Jupiter does not have a hard, rocky surface like the one we have here on Earth. All gas giants form far from their star but then some migrate inwards. How does Jupiter's core compare at Earth? Temperatures on Jupiter and Saturn are too high for methane to condense. so … It is about the same size but is 10 times more massive. For a while, it started to look like our own solar system was the weird one. why has jupiter retained most of its atmosphere? what kinds of planets are easiest to detect with each method? What types of evidence for recent or ongoing geological activity have been observed on one or more Jovian moons? Jupiter is made up of hydrogen and helium, and has no defined outer surface. Hot Jupiters are heated gas giant planets that are very close to their stars, just a few million miles distant and orbiting their stellar hosts in just a few days. A.) Why does Neptune appear blue and Jupiter red? And another. How can we determine the reflectivity of an asteroid? Moons densities decrease with increasing distance from Jupiter. When astronomers first discovered other planets, they were completely unlike anything we've ever found in the Solar System. Then half a dozen more. The close orbital distance explains why it is "hot." What is Pluto's moon Charon thought to have in common with our own Moon? The reason that most extrasolar planets are found close to their parent stars is. Jupiter, rather than continuing its migration to within a few million miles of the Sun as a Hot Jupiter would have done, instead changed course: it tacked. In fact we can say there are no such forces to move Jupiter towards sun. Why isn't there a planets where the asteroid belt is located? Which of the following is not a piece of evidence supporting the idea that an impact caused the mass extinction that occurred 65 million years ago? So Jupiter could have theoretically moved even closer to the sun to become a true hot jupiter but the extremely complex, chaotic, and dynamic conditions of the early solar system set in motion a string of interactions that prevented that from happening and instead formed the solar system we see today. Where is the asteroid belt located and why? What does Jupiter have three distinct layers of clouds? Which of the following best explains why we see horizontal "stripes" in photographs of Jupiter and Saturn? Which of the following places is NOT generally considered a potential home for life in our solar system? earth-sized hurricane. It exists because of orbital resonances with Jupiter. Which of the following is a real piece of evidence pointing to geological activity on Pluto? The region is full of gases that become ionized after they are released from volcanoes on Io. They're probably pretty rare; the current list contains a lot of them, because for a few years "hot Jupiter" type systems were the only ones that could be detected. What best describes the general patter of composition among the four Jovian planets? But then another hot Jupiter was found. It stabilized Earth's axis tilt and prevented large climate changes. what does Jupiter's flattening tell us about its interior? how did Voyager and Galileo change our perception of jupiter? (based on recent estimates of how rapidly the moon's heat escapes into space). The sun is one thousand times heavier than Jupiter, but Jupiter is two and a half times heavier than all of the other planets in our solar system put together! Pioneer 10 was the first spacecraft to fly past Jupiter. Jovian moons are made mostly of ice that can melt or deform at lower temperatures than can the rock and metal that make up the Moon and Mercury. Which of the following is most unlikely to be found on Titan? the glow from a pea-size particle and the surrounding air as the particle burns up in our atmosphere. Why were the rings of Jupiter, Uranus, and Neptune not discovered until the 20th century? Which statement explains the observations that make it seem possible that mars could have life underground? But then another hot Jupiter was found. Saturn, where it generates heat as it falls downward. Size does matter. Why is the radiation so intense in the region that traces Io's orbit around Jupiter (the Io torus)? Jupiter's magnetosphere has a long tail extending away from the Sun at least as far as Saturn's orbit. Accretion took longer further from the Sun, so the more distant planets formed their cores later and captured less gas from the solar nebula than the closer Jovian planets. How do astronomers think Jupiter generates its internal heat? hot Jupiter's have fusion reactions; cold Jupiter's do not B.) Which factor explains why? That heat is still leaking out through the atmospheric blanket. Project Description. Which of the following objects are probably not located in the same region of the solar system in which they originally formed? What do we mean by a "hot Jupiter"? “Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are all far too hot in their upper atmospheres compared to the amount of sunlight they receive,” said lead author James O’Donoghue, a … Why? Jupiter, being the biggest planet, gets its name from the king of the ancient Roman gods. A comet entering the inner solar system from afar will, form a coma and some time later from a tail, During the time that a comet passes through the inner solar system, the comet can appear quite bright because, sunlight reflects off the comet's tail and coma, A comet's plasma tail always points directly away from Sun because, of pressure exerted by the fast-moving charged particles in the solar wind, Primitive meteorites can be distinguished from the other meteorites and terrestrial rocks because they, contain a noticeable fraction of pure metallic flakes. A new look at a Jupiter-size planet orbiting extremely close to its parent star seems to defy the leading hypothesis for how these "hot Jupiters" arrive at their tight orbits. a planet that is Jupiter-like in size but orbits very close to its star. Why do some scientists think that Jupiter's existence may have been critical for life to evolve on Earth? -rivervalleys feeding into surface lakes of very cold liquids. Hot Jupiters are a class of gas giant exoplanets that are inferred to be physically similar to Jupiter but that have very short orbital periods (P < 10 days). Which of the following planets cannot be seen with the naked eye? If our solar system had a hot Jupiter, we wouldn't be here to see it. Which of the following statements best describes the size of the largest asteroid, Ceres? theory for jupiter's internal heat source: when jupiter was created, some gravitational energy was converted into heat in the interior. Ceres / ˈ s ɪər iː z / (minor-planet designation: 1 Ceres) is the largest object in the main asteroid belt that lies between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.With a diameter of 940 km (580 mi), Ceres is both the largest of the asteroids and the only dwarf planet inside Neptune's orbit. (Ganymede and Callisto have more craters because they are less geologically active). Read on to learn how Jupiter came achingly close to being its own star. 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