Pisum sativum L. is an accepted name This name is the accepted name of a species in the genus Pisum (family Leguminosae). In addition, peas also feed the soil by fixing nitrogen; certain varieties can be used as a cool-season cover crop for this reason, often under the name Austrian Winter Pea or Pisum arvense. European colonization introduced the crop to the New World and other regions throughout the globe. macrocarpum Ser. Medicago sativa, alfalfa. For other uses, see, Species of flowering plant with edible seeds in the family Fabaceae.  In Sweden it is called ärtsoppa, and is eaten as a traditional Swedish food which predates the Viking Age. The wild pea is restricted to the Mediterranean basin and the Near East. The Plants Database includes the following 4 species of Pisum . Thus, we decided to optimize the method for legume plants to facilitate the functional analyses of A. pisum salivary proteins.  In the first century AD, Columella mentions them in De re rustica, when Roman legionaries still gathered wild peas from the sandy soils of Numidia and Judea to supplement their rations. Edict quoted in Michel Pitrat and Claude Four. macrocarpum. , Some people experience allergic reactions to peas, as well as lentils, with vicilin or convicilin as the usual allergens. In dense plantings, peas give each other some measure of mutual support.  The immature peas (and in snow peas the tender pod as well) are used as a vegetable, fresh, frozen or canned; varieties of the species typically called field peas are grown to produce dry peas like the split pea shelled from a matured pod. A traditional approach to supporting climbing peas is to thrust branches pruned from trees or other woody plants upright into the soil, providing a lattice for the peas to climb. Inside the pod, 5 to 10 seeds are attached by short stalks. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Peas were present in Afghanistan c. 2000 BC; in Harappan civilization around modern-day Pakistan and western- and northwestern India in 2250–1750 BC. , In North America pea milk is produced and sold as an alternative to cow milk for a variety of reasons.. The garden pea is widely cultivated in Northern temperature regions and is an easily grown vegetable found in many back yard gardens.  Pea seed peptide fractions have less ability to scavenge free radicals than glutathione, but greater ability to chelate metals and inhibit linoleic acid oxidation. ", "How frozen vegetable is made - production process, making, used, processing, product, industry, machine", "Peas-Western Oregon, Commercial Vegetable Production Guides", "Vegetable Cultivar Descriptions for North America", "Pea, Snap—Pisum sativum L. (Macrocarpon group)", "Pea, Snow—Pisum sativum L. (Macrocarpon group)", "Gregor Mendel: The Pea Plant Experiment", "An integrated and comparative view of pea genetic and cytogenetic maps", "A reference genome for pea provides insight into legume genome evolution", "Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency", "Nitrogen Mobilization in Pea Seedlings.  He ended up growing and examining about 28,000 pea plants in the course of his experiments..  From plants growing wild in the Mediterranean basin, constant selection since the Neolithic dawn of agriculture improved their yield. The reddish purple, pink, or white flowers, growing two to three per stalk, are butterfly-shaped. Some varieties, including sugar peas and snow peas, produce pods that are edible and are eaten raw or cooked like green beans; they are popular in East Asian cuisines. The fruit is a pod that grows to 10 cm (4 inches) long, splitting in half when ripe. Branches used in this fashion are sometimes called pea brush. While the origins of domesticated peas have not been definitely determined, the pea is one of the oldest cultivated crops. Hernández Bermejo, J. E. & León, J., (1992). They are then cooled and removed from the water. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species", "Reducing food's environmental impacts through producers and consumers", "Green Pea Soup, Hungarian - Soups - Recipes - hungarianpaprika.net", "Hungarian Pea Soup with Nokedli | Just a Taste", "If You Like Almond Milk, You'll Love...Pea Milk? It has been an important grain legume crop for millennia, seeds showing domesticated characteristics dating from at least 7000 years ago have been found in archaeological sites around what is now Turkey. ABSTRACT . Pisum sativum is a ANNUAL growing to 2 m (6ft 7in). Pisum sativum, pea plant. pisi , races 1, 5, and 6, produce wilt symptoms; race 2 produces near-wilt symptoms. Cysterski. In 2002, there were approximately 300,000 acres of field peas grown in the United States. Some of the most common varieties are listed here. The earliest archaeological finds of peas date from the late Neolithic era of current Greece, Syria, Turkey and Jordan. It is mostly available as green, golden yellow or purple color pod-shaped vegetables. The wild plant is native to the Mediterranean region, and ancient remains dating to the late Neolithic Period have been found in the Middle East. (2016). Sodium bicarbonate is sometimes added to soften the peas. English Pea (Pisum sativum 'Green Arrow') in the Peas Database - Garden.org New and Unread Tree-Mails Here, we report the identification and expression analysis of BELL genes in the legume plants Medicago truncatula and Pisum sativum, which are involved in regulating symbiosis initiation and development. In the early 3rd century BC Theophrastus mentions peas among the legumes that are sown late in the winter because of their tenderness. Fresh peas are also used in pot pies, salads and casseroles. The root system is relatively shallow and small, but well nodulated. Updates? Parts of pea plant: A pea plant has two main parts: root and shoot. In the Philippines, peas, while still in their pods, are a common ingredient in viands and pansit. The most common diseases that affect peas are root rot, powdery mildew, and several viral diseases. , In India, fresh peas are used in various dishes such as aloo matar (curried potatoes with peas) or matar paneer (paneer cheese with peas), though they can be substituted with frozen peas as well. Green peas were introduced from Genoa to the court of Louis XIV of France in January 1660, with some staged fanfare; a hamper of them were presented before the King, and then were shelled by the Savoyan comte de Soissons, who had married a niece of Cardinal Mazarin; little dishes of peas were then presented to the King, the Queen, Cardinal Mazarin and Monsieur, the king's brother. 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